عنوان مقاله [English]
The surfaces made of natural and artificial elements such as stone, brick, soil and non-arable land has are called, "hard landscape". In Persian Garden pattern, soft and hard surfaces are clearly separated from each other and this is visible in distinct areas. Although the gardens constructed in Indian Mughal kings era have followed the manner of Iranian gardening in terms of design pattern, building blocks and elements, and they can be called a species of Iranian gardens, but there exist some differences between them with the main examples, which can be observed with presence in the garden. The difference in hard landscape is one of these occurrences. In Indian gardens with Persian pattern, hard surfaces and floor-building are more extensive compared with those of Iran and more extensive garden and this significantly influenced the garden landscape in an obvious and perceived way. This study attempts to challenge the hard landscape difference, investigating the elements and characteristics of the garden environmental design and examining Indian examples. Accordingly, it is determined that the extension of hard surfaces and their geometric order based on straight lines and orthogonal angles in the absence of dense vegetation cause that Indian garden be perceived as more regular than Persian garden and its hard landscape find a double manifestation. In order to prove this, the hard landscape elements and qualities obtained by using them in Indian garden design are examined for the visual and perceived impact of proportionality change between the hard and soft landscape of garden to be specified in viewer’s look.