عنوان مقاله [English]
History shows that from ancient times to the present, the political system of Iran has remained authoritarian. The people have not been given a role in the administration of the country’s affairs in this style of government. According to investigations, the tobacco movement disrupted the political connection between the people and the government for the first time in Iran’s history. In this movement, the Iranian people began a major protest against a political problem to stand against the authoritarian government, and the relationship between the people and the government changed as a result. In this regard, the current study aims to provide a solution to this topic. What is the formation process of the tobacco movement through the lens of Margaret Archer’s integrated theory? The research is descriptive-analytical and qualitative. The data were collected using the library method from first-hand books and other valid scientific articles. The findings of this study revealed that before the tobacco concession was given, a dialectical interaction between political intellectuals and the government had begun. The interaction was launched after Iranians were defeated in the Russian war, and it peaked in the final decade of Naseruddin Shah’s reign. Intellectuals made strong criticisms of Naser al-Din Shah’s dictatorial government in a dialectical connection. Now, amid these criticisms and following the handover of tobacco concessions, the formation of this movement was first based on the self-awareness of domestic political forces such as intellectuals, and the publication of this self-awareness made other internal forces such as powerful economic and religious activists united. Upon such an alliance, ordinary activists influenced by these three powerful groups formed a formidable alliance in front of the court under the leadership of the intellectuals. The coalition of internal forces, along with the opposition of the Russian government to its interests, created pressure against the authoritarian government, and Nasir al-Din Shah was eventually compelled to announce that the tobacco monopoly contract was canceled.
آبراهامیان، یرواند. (1380). ایران بین دو انقلاب: از مشروطه تا انقلاب اسلامی (ترجمة کاظم فیروزمند، حسن شمسآوری و محسن مدیر شانهچی). چاپ چهارم. تهران: مرکز.