عنوان مقاله [English]
Holy Quran and hadiths have provided a detailed description of heaven. It has been described as dense trees and streams flowing under the trees, and magnificent palaces that are the permanent residence of Muslims. Iranian gardens have always been a manifestation of heaven and heavenly gardens. A combination of green space and the function of the buildings within which located, Iranian gardens have been placed in different categories and had various functions. The present study compares the functions of the gardens in Islamic teachings with the Iranian garden and investigates the factors affecting the realization of Islamic teachings in the functional system of the Iranian garden. It also seeks to answer the following questions: To what extent the function of the Iranian garden corresponds to the function of the garden of Islamic teachings? What factors and how do they affect the realization of Islamic teachings in the functional system of the Iranian garden? These questions were answered by a descriptive-analytical method and a comparative approach. In the first step of data collection, using the document-library method, the components of the garden of Islamic teachings were extracted and examined in eleven samples of Iranian gardens. In the next step, with field interviews and using the Delphi method, the factors affecting the realization of Islamic teachings in the functional system of the Iranian garden were identified and examined based on the opinions of experts. In line with achieving the study goal, by comparing the Iranian garden and the garden in Islamic teachings, it can be concluded that the gardens in Islamic teachings can be classified into different categories based on their function, pavilion garden, house garden, fruit garden, Takht garden, water garden, and enclosed garden.
The factors that play a role in the realization of Islamic teachings in the functional system of the Iranian garden include the sociological components of the political and social position of people and the geography component of the climate of the region), which cause limitations in the realization of Islamic teachings. Also, the sociological components of culture, security, and economy and the geography component of land toll are the strengthening factors and are in line with Islamic teachings. The results show that the components of the limiting factors have a greater impact than the components of the strengthening factors in the realization of Islamic teachings in the function of Iranian gardens. Among the limiting factors, the sociology component has a greater effect than the geography component.
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