عنوان مقاله [English]
Human being is selecting a place to settle, first of all could detoxify his physical needs. Also he has attention to the secondary needs (concinnity) in this selection. Safety, food and clothing are the most important human needs in order to select the place of residence. Republic of Georgia had been considered by too many people over time because of the natural fertility to reside on Caucasus Mountains and its specific cultural landscape. Formation of settlements on the riverbanks and hillsides is due to the appropriate climatic conditions for farming, animal husbandry and sedentarization. Safety, the other human needs, is considered to choose the place of residence. If the selected place can`t provide significant safety for humans and he don`t be safe from the enemy`s infestation, he will inevitably think to arrangements to compensate for shortages of security by architecture. Formation of the defensive landscape of settlements is the interaction between cultural landscape, natural landscape and historical landscape -as a result of cultural landscape and natural landscape- which has formed various types in different place of residence, according to variety of natural landscapes and historical events. Defensive landscape is inevitable part of cultural landscape of historical residential complexes and also is part of an evolution process of cultural landscape. Residential architecture with approach of defense has two distinctive types in Georgian cities. Defensive landscape is defined by the battlements in Tbilisi and Gori like several cities in Iran; coarse-grained, centralized and introverted. Against, it is defined by high stone defensive towers in Mestia and Ushguli cities; fine-grained and extroverted.