عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
The early societies of the Middle Ages population centers were merely based on the army camps and the surrounding areas which provided for the needs of the inhabitants and the defense of the realm. However, with the changes that the societies were gradually subjected to, as the time went by, small towns were sprung up by joining up the castles, the dwelling centers, service centers, industrial centers, shopping centers and the improvement of the trade, leading to an organized social structure.
Initially, the early middle ages societies and spatial structure were devoid of any city structure, but during the 11th and the 12th centuries, the archeological remnants from the Roman cities, were revitalized and some castles were transformed to trade centers. The neighbourhood structure in these towns, however, as a unit from the whole, considering the factors already mentioned and based on extrovert nature of the western architecture, has led to number of differences between the urban and public spaces. Therefore, the meaning and the conception of the neighbourhood order and its dwelling structure, in number of ways, are different from
those of traditional neighbourhoods in Iran.
Having said so, with the aim of structural review, the fabric and shaping of the towns in the middle ages on the one hand and the identification of the distinct cultural, local and historic aspects of the four European cities on the other hand, we go on to review the spatial structure, skeletal, social, and distinguish the creation of the neighbourhoods the system formation of the cities.
This article is a descriptive and analytical statement, based on field visits, case studies and the library data collection methods. The criteria for measuring the elements of spatial organization including (core and center), (structure) and neighborhoods (the small urban system) has been determined. The results of the finding indicates that by definition of a complete neighbourhood and the review of the elements of spatial organization, the towns of the middle ages can not considered an organized towns with a complete and coherent spatial organization of neighborhoods and residential structure, but rather have remained in its undeveloped form.