عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Religious culture was out of access for Indian public, and deep philosophical religious texts were exclusively for the class of privileged and clergymen; So over many years, popular religion was collected in a book called Veda (means the Indian knowledge) including poems, legends and mystical chants which sometimes were obscure. This set is known as the world's oldest religious book and the mother of religions. Most researchers do not remember it as a religion, and consider it as culture and rituals of living. Religion, ritual and popular beliefs in India were accompanied with the fabulous ambiguous curious adventures. What is understood from the appearance of Hindu ritual is polytheism, idolatry and superstition. But it is not true. The history of Hinduism and its branches expresses the monotheism and belief in the unity of the creator. As the Hindu-Iranian Aryans were always Unitarian and were praising various manifestations of nature as gods. They never were idolaters and believed in monotheism, although they had pluralistic beliefs. The interpretation of monotheistic in Semitic religions1 is different from Hinduism as a gradually altered religion. My field researches in India and dialogues with Hindu thinkers demonstrated that today’s common ritual in Hinduism is a distorted form of a monotheistic belief, that originally had believed in the Oneness of the Creator, as mentioned in the Upanishads. However, like other Abrahamic monotheistic religions which believe in the unity of the Creator with differences in other specifications and interpretations of the universe, Hinduism is a kind of primary believe in oneness of God that has had distortion by historical reasons. Nowadays, Hinduism has a long distance from its monotheistic origin.