عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Iranian gardens as one of the symbols of gardening in the world, while having a unique pattern has a wide variety in its components. The diversity along with simplicity of style in Iranian gardens develops complex concepts and different functions in different types of Iranian gardens. The diversity in gardens of different climates is in such a way that we are witnessing different forms of kiosks, water usage, and backup residence areas in the garden.Residence in the gardenswas generally for recreation and rest, that is why this residence is considered temporary.This causes the formation of a special kind of kiosk architecture, which has emphasized on the most desirable of vision and perspectiveand necessary elements for permanent residence in an area were not considered. Manifestation of Persian Garden in different regions of Iran has some differences in accordance with conditions of the area. South Khorasan gardens specially gardens of Birjand despite structural similarities with other Persian gardens are different in componentsand havetheir own independent identity. Although Theses garden are located in climates similar to Iranian desert gardens but due to the type of occupancy and usage of their rulers, they have some differences with temporary residential patterns in Iran. Some of these differences aresuch as type of kiosk or mansion establishment in the Garden and style of residence.
In this paper, Birjand gardenswere studied using the historical-analytical method, and the difference of dwelling typesbetween Birjand gardenswere analyzed by means of library resources and field observations. Evaluation of Birjand Gardens shows that the establishment of vast mansions in an east to west direction,in order to permanent residence is a dominant gardening feature of this region. The present paper examines the distinctive aspects between residential districts of Birjand gardens and tries to identify and explain thegardening pattern this region as a different type of Iranian gardening.