عنوان مقاله [English]
Locating and establishing cities depends on the natural and climatic structure of the region;, the shape, landscape and consequently the architectural structures form in the harmony with physical characteristic such as topography, vegetation, fauna, water and other factors engaged in the ecosystem. Besides, environmental factors have always remind the identity in the mind of landscape dwellers and users and give meaning to it. Therefore, an old tree, water flow and many other landscape factors remain in the mind and become sacred and symbolic.
The diversity of landforms and the mutual relationship of city and its texture, environmental interactions, built structure and formation of landscape with a clear identity is observable in most cities of Iran, including Gorgan. The proximity to forest, river and mountain is another particular characteristic of landscapes in this city. This research aims to study the approaches of confrontation with the nature in Gorgan by using a qualitative approach and based on the interpretations, historical analysis and case study. This research is the result of a group field visit in 3 days in Gorgan. It tries to identify the effective ecologic factors in forming the urban landscape of Gorgan by reviewing the literature and their mutual relationship and introduce the objective and subjective aspects that affect the formation of ecologic landscape.